• Terminal Radar Approach Control

    Introduction:

    • Approach control is responsible for controlling all instrument flight operating within its area of responsibility
    • Approach control may serve one or more airfields, and control is exercised primarily by direct pilot and controller communications
    • Prior to arriving at the destination radio facility, instructions will be received from ARTCC to contact approach control on a specified frequency
    • Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) controls aircraft from the terminal to en-route traffic control to one or more airfields
      • Typically controls aircraft approaching and departing between 5 and 50 miles of the airport
      • Approach control may serve one or more airfields, and control is exercised primarily by direct pilot and controller communications
    • Radar equipment allows a controller to “see” the aircraft even at that distance
    • Sequences and separates IFR and participating VFR aircraft

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  • Air Traffic Control Tower

    Introduction:

    • Airport Traffic Control Towers (ATCTs) are established to provide for a safe, orderly and expeditious flow of traffic
      • When the responsibility has been so delegated, towers also provide for the separation of IFR aircraft in the terminal areas
    • ATCTs control traffic flow on and in the vicinity of an airport
    • They exist when traffic requirements demand and subsequently designated the airspace as either class B, class C, orclass D depending on level of congestion and services provided
    • Additionally, ATCTs also provide for separation of Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) aircraft in the terminal areas
    • Air Traffic Control towers consist of three main components:

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  • Solo Restrictions

    Introduction:

    • A student pilot may not operate an aircraft in solo flight unless they’ve met Federal Aviation Regulation 61.87 solo requirements
      • Solo Flight: Flight time during which a student pilot is the sole occupant of the aircraft or that flight time during which the student performs the duties of a pilot in command of a gas balloon or an airship requiring more than one pilot flight crewmember
    • Certain airports have been deemed off limits to solo students and aircraft that are not required to carry equipment such as radios and transponders

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  • Right of Way

    Introduction:

    • When weather conditions permit, regardless of whether an operation is conducted under IFR or VFR, vigilance shall be maintained by each person operating an aircraft so as to see-and-avoid other aircraft
    • When a rule of this section gives another aircraft the right-of-way, the pilot shall give way to that aircraft and may not pass over, under, or ahead of it unless well clear
      • Think: BIG “R” (BGAAR)
        1. Balloons
        2. Gliders
        3. Airship
        4. Airplanes
        5. Rotor-craft
    • An aircraft towing or refueling other aircraft has the right-of-way over all other engine-driven aircraft

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  • Operating Near Other Aircraft

    Introduction:

    • No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard
    • No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight except by arrangement with the pilot in command of each aircraft in the formation
    • No person may operate an aircraft, carrying passengers for hire, in formation flight

     

    • Providing airborne assistance to another aircraft may involve flying in very close proximity to that aircraft
    • Most pilots receive little, if any, formal training or instruction in this type of flying activity
    • Close proximity flying without sufficient time to plan (i.e., in an emergency situation), coupled with the stress involved in a perceived emergency can be hazardous
    • The pilot in the best position to assess the situation should take the responsibility of coordinating the airborne intercept and inspection, and take into account the unique flight characteristics and differences of the category(s) of aircraft involved

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