• Radio Detection and Ranging

    Introduction:

    • ATC uses Radio Detection And Ranging (RADAR) which create radio waves, transmitted into the air that are then received when they have been reflected (echo) by an object in the path of the beam
    • Range is determined by measuring the time it takes (at the speed of light) for the radio wave to go out to the object and then return to the receiving antenna
    • Direction of a detected object from a radar site is determined by the position of the rotating antenna when the reflected portion of the radio wave is received

    Continue reading  Post ID 728


  • Radio Communications

    Introduction:

    • Communications are a critical link in the ATC system
    • The most important thought in communications is understanding
      • It is essential, therefore, that pilots acknowledge each radio communication with ATC by using the appropriate aircraft call sign
    • Brevity is important but not at the price of understanding
      • Controllers must know what you want to do before they can properly carry out their control duties
      • Pilots, must know exactly what the controller wants you to do
      • Since concise phraseology may not always be adequate, use whatever words are necessary to get your message across
    • Talking on the radio however, can be intimidating to even experienced aviators
    • It is therefore important that pilots practice effective communication techniques
    • You must be familiar with ATC Radio Communications
      • Phraseology brings everyone to the same page and allows for an orderly flow of information for instances when you are in congested airspace and there is no time for extra verbiage
    • Calls to air traffic control facilities may be monitored and recorded for records/training
    • Visiting air traffic facilities is recommended, call ahead to ensure they can accommodate
    • Communications are dynamic and can be broken into two environments:
      • Controlled
      • Non-Controlled

    Continue reading  Post ID 728


  • Terminal Radar Approach Control

    Introduction:

    • Approach control is responsible for controlling all instrument flight operating within its area of responsibility
    • Approach control may serve one or more airfields, and control is exercised primarily by direct pilot and controller communications
    • Prior to arriving at the destination radio facility, instructions will be received from ARTCC to contact approach control on a specified frequency
    • Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) controls aircraft from the terminal to en-route traffic control to one or more airfields
      • Typically controls aircraft approaching and departing between 5 and 50 miles of the airport
      • Approach control may serve one or more airfields, and control is exercised primarily by direct pilot and controller communications
    • Radar equipment allows a controller to “see” the aircraft even at that distance
    • Sequences and separates IFR and participating VFR aircraft

    Continue reading  Post ID 728


  • Air Traffic Control Tower

    Introduction:

    • Airport Traffic Control Towers (ATCTs) are established to provide for a safe, orderly and expeditious flow of traffic
      • When the responsibility has been so delegated, towers also provide for the separation of IFR aircraft in the terminal areas
    • ATCTs control traffic flow on and in the vicinity of an airport
    • They exist when traffic requirements demand and subsequently designated the airspace as either class B, class C, orclass D depending on level of congestion and services provided
    • Additionally, ATCTs also provide for separation of Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) aircraft in the terminal areas
    • Air Traffic Control towers consist of three main components:

    Continue reading  Post ID 728


  • Solo Restrictions

    Introduction:

    • A student pilot may not operate an aircraft in solo flight unless they’ve met Federal Aviation Regulation 61.87 solo requirements
      • Solo Flight: Flight time during which a student pilot is the sole occupant of the aircraft or that flight time during which the student performs the duties of a pilot in command of a gas balloon or an airship requiring more than one pilot flight crewmember
    • Certain airports have been deemed off limits to solo students and aircraft that are not required to carry equipment such as radios and transponders

    Continue reading  Post ID 728


  • Right of Way

    Introduction:

    • When weather conditions permit, regardless of whether an operation is conducted under IFR or VFR, vigilance shall be maintained by each person operating an aircraft so as to see-and-avoid other aircraft
    • When a rule of this section gives another aircraft the right-of-way, the pilot shall give way to that aircraft and may not pass over, under, or ahead of it unless well clear
      • Think: BIG “R” (BGAAR)
        1. Balloons
        2. Gliders
        3. Airship
        4. Airplanes
        5. Rotor-craft
    • An aircraft towing or refueling other aircraft has the right-of-way over all other engine-driven aircraft

    Continue reading  Post ID 728