• Hazard Area Reporting Service

    Introduction:

    • Selected FSSs provide flight monitoring where regularly traveled VFR routes cross large bodies of water, swamps, and mountains
    • The purpose of this service is to provide expeditious alerting of Search and Rescue (SAR) facilities when required
    • The service may be requested either in person, by telephone or by radio
    • When requested pilots should be prepared to give the following:
      • Type of aircraft
      • Altitude
      • Indicated airspeed
      • Present position
      • Route of flight
      • Heading
    • Radio contacts are desired at least every 10 minutes, if contact is lost for more than 15 minutes, SAR will be alerted
    • Pilots are required to cancel when out of the service area boundary Figure 1
      • Pilots experiencing two-way radio failure are expected to land as soon as practicable and cancel their request for the service

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  • Radar Traffic Information Service

    Introduction:

    • Provided by radar ATC facilities (approach and higher)
    • Pilots receiving this service are advised of any radar target observed on the display which may be in such proximity to the position or intended route that it warrants attention
      • Does not relieve the pilot of continual vigilance to see and avoid other aircraft
    • Remember, surveillance radar does not provide altitude information unless the aircraft is equipped with Mode C and the radar facility is capable of displaying altitude information
    • Service is provided on a workload basis
    • Routinely provided for IFR traffic unless the pilot declines
    • VFR Radar Advisory Service may be requested
    • The pilot may request a vector to avoid traffic when called

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  • Federal Aviation Administration Weather Services

    ntroduction:

    • The National Weather Service maintains a network of radar sites for detecting coverage, intensity, and movement of precipitation, as well as Flight Service Stations (FSSs) to serve the weather needs of pilots
      • Local warning radar sites augment the network by operating on an as needed basis to support warning and forecast programs
    • NWS meteorologists are assigned to most Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs) as part of the Center Weather Service Unit (CWSU)
      • They provide Center Weather Advisories (CWAs) and gather weather information to support the needs of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other users to the system

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  • En-Route Flight Advisory Service

    Introduction:

    • En-Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS) provides en-route aircraft with timely and meaningful weather advisories pertinent to the type, route, and altitude of flight
      • EFAS is also a central collection and distribution point for pilot reported weather information (PIREPS)
      • Called En-Route Flight Advisory Service formally but referred to as “flight watch” in the air
      • EFAS is the civilian equivalent of the military Pilot To Metro Service (PMSV)
    • Monitors IR/VR routes
    • Issues airport advisories
    • Handles emergency frequencies
    • Coordinates search and rescue (practice steering available on request) and helps lost aircraft
    • Monitors NAVAIDs

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  • Terminal Broadcast Services/Systems

    Introduction:

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  • Traffic Advisories

    Airport Operations Without Operating Control Tower

    • There is no substitute for alertness while in the vicinity of an airport. It is essential that pilots be alert and look for other traffic and exchange traffic information when approaching or departing an airport without an operating control tower. This is of particular importance since other aircraft may not have communication capability or, in some cases, pilots may not communicate their presence or intentions when operating into or out of such airports. To achieve the greatest degree of safety, it is essential that all radio-equipped aircraft transmit/receive on a common frequency identified for the purpose of airport advisories

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  • Radar Vectors

    Introduction:

    • Instructions issued by ATC to facilitate the smooth and expeditious flow of traffic
    • Promptly comply with, but question anything you do not believe to be correct
    • If operating VFR and compliance with any radar vectors or altitude would cause a violation of any CFR, advises ATC and obtains a revised clearance or instructions

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  • Radio Detection and Ranging

    Introduction:

    • ATC uses Radio Detection And Ranging (RADAR) which create radio waves, transmitted into the air that are then received when they have been reflected (echo) by an object in the path of the beam
    • Range is determined by measuring the time it takes (at the speed of light) for the radio wave to go out to the object and then return to the receiving antenna
    • Direction of a detected object from a radar site is determined by the position of the rotating antenna when the reflected portion of the radio wave is received

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  • Radio Communications

    Introduction:

    • Communications are a critical link in the ATC system
    • The most important thought in communications is understanding
      • It is essential, therefore, that pilots acknowledge each radio communication with ATC by using the appropriate aircraft call sign
    • Brevity is important but not at the price of understanding
      • Controllers must know what you want to do before they can properly carry out their control duties
      • Pilots, must know exactly what the controller wants you to do
      • Since concise phraseology may not always be adequate, use whatever words are necessary to get your message across
    • Talking on the radio however, can be intimidating to even experienced aviators
    • It is therefore important that pilots practice effective communication techniques
    • You must be familiar with ATC Radio Communications
      • Phraseology brings everyone to the same page and allows for an orderly flow of information for instances when you are in congested airspace and there is no time for extra verbiage
    • Calls to air traffic control facilities may be monitored and recorded for records/training
    • Visiting air traffic facilities is recommended, call ahead to ensure they can accommodate
    • Communications are dynamic and can be broken into two environments:
      • Controlled
      • Non-Controlled

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