• Federal Aviation Administration Weather Services

    ntroduction:

    • The National Weather Service maintains a network of radar sites for detecting coverage, intensity, and movement of precipitation, as well as Flight Service Stations (FSSs) to serve the weather needs of pilots
      • Local warning radar sites augment the network by operating on an as needed basis to support warning and forecast programs
    • NWS meteorologists are assigned to most Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs) as part of the Center Weather Service Unit (CWSU)
      • They provide Center Weather Advisories (CWAs) and gather weather information to support the needs of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other users to the system

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  • En-Route Flight Advisory Service

    Introduction:

    • En-Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS) provides en-route aircraft with timely and meaningful weather advisories pertinent to the type, route, and altitude of flight
      • EFAS is also a central collection and distribution point for pilot reported weather information (PIREPS)
      • Called En-Route Flight Advisory Service formally but referred to as “flight watch” in the air
      • EFAS is the civilian equivalent of the military Pilot To Metro Service (PMSV)
    • Monitors IR/VR routes
    • Issues airport advisories
    • Handles emergency frequencies
    • Coordinates search and rescue (practice steering available on request) and helps lost aircraft
    • Monitors NAVAIDs

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  • Terminal Broadcast Services/Systems

    Introduction:

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  • Traffic Advisories

    Airport Operations Without Operating Control Tower

    • There is no substitute for alertness while in the vicinity of an airport. It is essential that pilots be alert and look for other traffic and exchange traffic information when approaching or departing an airport without an operating control tower. This is of particular importance since other aircraft may not have communication capability or, in some cases, pilots may not communicate their presence or intentions when operating into or out of such airports. To achieve the greatest degree of safety, it is essential that all radio-equipped aircraft transmit/receive on a common frequency identified for the purpose of airport advisories

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  • Radar Vectors

    Introduction:

    • Instructions issued by ATC to facilitate the smooth and expeditious flow of traffic
    • Promptly comply with, but question anything you do not believe to be correct
    • If operating VFR and compliance with any radar vectors or altitude would cause a violation of any CFR, advises ATC and obtains a revised clearance or instructions

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  • Radio Detection and Ranging

    Introduction:

    • ATC uses Radio Detection And Ranging (RADAR) which create radio waves, transmitted into the air that are then received when they have been reflected (echo) by an object in the path of the beam
    • Range is determined by measuring the time it takes (at the speed of light) for the radio wave to go out to the object and then return to the receiving antenna
    • Direction of a detected object from a radar site is determined by the position of the rotating antenna when the reflected portion of the radio wave is received

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  • Radio Communications

    Introduction:

    • Communications are a critical link in the ATC system
    • The most important thought in communications is understanding
      • It is essential, therefore, that pilots acknowledge each radio communication with ATC by using the appropriate aircraft call sign
    • Brevity is important but not at the price of understanding
      • Controllers must know what you want to do before they can properly carry out their control duties
      • Pilots, must know exactly what the controller wants you to do
      • Since concise phraseology may not always be adequate, use whatever words are necessary to get your message across
    • Talking on the radio however, can be intimidating to even experienced aviators
    • It is therefore important that pilots practice effective communication techniques
    • You must be familiar with ATC Radio Communications
      • Phraseology brings everyone to the same page and allows for an orderly flow of information for instances when you are in congested airspace and there is no time for extra verbiage
    • Calls to air traffic control facilities may be monitored and recorded for records/training
    • Visiting air traffic facilities is recommended, call ahead to ensure they can accommodate
    • Communications are dynamic and can be broken into two environments:
      • Controlled
      • Non-Controlled

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  • Terminal Radar Approach Control

    Introduction:

    • Approach control is responsible for controlling all instrument flight operating within its area of responsibility
    • Approach control may serve one or more airfields, and control is exercised primarily by direct pilot and controller communications
    • Prior to arriving at the destination radio facility, instructions will be received from ARTCC to contact approach control on a specified frequency
    • Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) controls aircraft from the terminal to en-route traffic control to one or more airfields
      • Typically controls aircraft approaching and departing between 5 and 50 miles of the airport
      • Approach control may serve one or more airfields, and control is exercised primarily by direct pilot and controller communications
    • Radar equipment allows a controller to “see” the aircraft even at that distance
    • Sequences and separates IFR and participating VFR aircraft

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  • Air Traffic Control Tower

    Introduction:

    • Airport Traffic Control Towers (ATCTs) are established to provide for a safe, orderly and expeditious flow of traffic
      • When the responsibility has been so delegated, towers also provide for the separation of IFR aircraft in the terminal areas
    • ATCTs control traffic flow on and in the vicinity of an airport
    • They exist when traffic requirements demand and subsequently designated the airspace as either class B, class C, orclass D depending on level of congestion and services provided
    • Additionally, ATCTs also provide for separation of Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) aircraft in the terminal areas
    • Air Traffic Control towers consist of three main components:

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