- Category Archives Regulation
JAR-OPS 1.400 Approach and Landing Conditions
“Before commencing an approach to land, the commander must satisfy himself that, according to the information available to him, the weather at the aerodrome and the condition of the runway intended to be used should not prevent a safe approach, landing or missed approach, having regard to the performance information contained in the Operations Manual.”
A tailstrike occurs when the tail of an aircraft touches the runway during takeoff or landing. Tailstrike at landing often occurs on the second touchdown, following a bounce. It is often associated with a hard landing. It can occur with any type of aircraft, although tailstrikes occur more often with long aircraft, because tailstrike occurrence is directly related to pitch attitude versus aircraft geometry, and the status of main landing gear extension.
The purpose of this document is to provide an understanding of aircraft operations in cold weather conditions, and address such aspects as aircraft contamination, performance on contaminated runways, fuel freezing limitations and altimeter corrections.
Jeppesen – EMERGENCY – Comm Failure – ICAO – 23 NOV 2012
6.1 GENERAL RULES
6.1.1 An aircraft operated as a controlled flight shall maintain continuous air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel of, and establish two-way communication as necessary with, the appropriate air traffic control unit, except as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority in respect of aircraft forming part of aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome. (Annex 2, 126.96.36.199)
JAA TGL 10 – Download
This leaflet provides guidance material for the approval of aircraft and operations in the European region where Precision Area Navigation (P-RNAV) is required. It relates to the implementation of area navigation within the context of the European Air Traffic Management Programme (EATMP) and should be read in conjunction with EUROCONTROL document 003-93(), Area Navigation Equipment: Operational Requirements and Functional Requirements.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
3 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
3.1 Related Requirements
3.2 Related Guidance Material
5 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
5.1 Lateral Navigation
5.2 Vertical Navigation
6 AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION OBJECTIVES FOR P-RNAV SYSTEMS
6.3 Continuity of Function
7 FUNCTIONAL CRITERIA
7.1 Required Functions
7.2 Recommended Functions
8 ACCEPTABLE MEANS OF AIRWORTHINESS COMPLIANCE
8.2 Database Integrity
8.3 Use of GPS Equipment
8.4 Use of Inertial Data
8.5 Intermixing of Equipment
9 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL
10 OPERATIONAL CRITERIA
10.2 Normal Procedures
10.3 Contingency Procedures
10.4 Incident Reporting
10.5 Flight Crew Training
10.6 Database Integrity
10.7 Flight Operations Documentation
Annex A Glossary
Annex B Specification for Database Integrity Check Tool
Annex C Evolution of Conventional Terminal Airspace Procedures to RNP-RNAV
Annex D Vertical Navigation
Annex E Flight Manual Change Sheet Template
I if IFR
V if VFR
Y if IFR first
Z if VFR first
TYPE OF FLIGHT
S if scheduled air service
N if non-scheduled air transport operation
G if general aviation
M if military
X if other than any of the defined categories above.
WAKE TURBULENCE CATEGORY
H — HEAVY, to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 136,000kg or more;
M — MEDIUM, to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated take-off mass of less than 136,000kg but more than 7000kg;
L — LIGHT, to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 7000kg or less.
– Radio Communication, Navigation and Approach Aid Equipment
A (Not allocated)
B (Not allocated)
C LORAN C
E (Not allocated)
H HF RTF
I Inertial Navigation
J (Data link) (see Note 3)
P (Not allocated)
Q (Not allocated)
R RNP type certification (see Note 5)
U UHF RTF
V VHF RTF
W* *When prescribed by ATS
Z Other equipment carried (See Note 2)
Quote: Check this out
ICAO Doc 4444 ATM/501 for W, X and Y
Procedures for Air Navigation Services
AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
This edition incorporates all amendments approved by the Council prior to 27 May 2008 and supersedes, on 15 November 2012, all previous editions of Doc 4444.
Fifteenth Edition – 2007
NOTE 1: Standard equipment is considered to be VHF RTF, ADF, VOR and ILS, unless another combination is prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority.
NOTE 2: If the letter Z is used, specify in Item 18 the other equipment carried, preceded by COM/ and/or NAV/, as appropriate.
NOTE 3: If the letter J is used, specify in Item 18 the equipment carried, preceded by DAT/ followed by one or more letters as appropriate.
NOTE 4: Information on navigation capability is provided to ATC for clearance and routing purposes.
NOTE 5: Inclusion of R indicates that an aircraft meets the RNP type prescribed for the route segment(s), route(s) and/or area concerned.
– Surveillance Equipment
A Transponder — Mode A (4 digits — 4096 codes)
C Transponder — Mode A (4 digits — 4096 codes) and Mode C
X Transponder — Mode S without both aircraft identification and pressure-altitude transmission
P Transponder — Mode S, including pressure-altitude transmission, but no aircraft identification transmission
I Transponder — Mode S, including aircraft identification transmission, but no pressure-altitude transmission
S Transponder — Mode S, including both pressure-altitude and aircraft identification transmission.
D ADS capability
EET/ Significant points or FIR boundary designators and accumulated estimated elapsed times to such points or FIR boundaries, when so prescribed on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, or by the appropriate ATS authority.
RIF/ The route details to the revised destination aerodrome, followed by the ICAO four-letter location indicator of the aerodrome. The revised route is subject to re-clearance in flight.
REG/ The registration markings of the aircraft, if different from the aircraft identification in Item 7.
SEL/ SELCAL Code, if so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority.
OPR/ Name of the operator, if not obvious from the aircraft identification in Item 7.
STS/ Reason for special handling by ATS; e.g., hospital aircraft, one engine inoperative; e.g., STS/HOSP, STS/ONE ENG INOP.
TYP/ Type(s) of aircraft, preceded if necessary by number(s) of aircraft, if ZZZZ is inserted in Item 9.
PER/ Aircraft performance data, if so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority.
COM/ Significant data related to communication equipment as required by the appropriate ATS authority; e.g., COM/UHF only.
DAT/ significant data related to data link capability, using one or more of the letters S, H, V and M; e.g., DAT/S for satellite data link; DAT/H for HF data link; DAT/V for VHF data link; DAT/M for SSR Mode S data link.
NAV/ Significant data related to navigation equipment as required by the appropriate ATS authority.
DEP/ Name of departure aerodrome, if ZZZZ is inserted in Item 13, or the ICAO four letter location indicator of the location of the ATS unit from which supplementary flight plan data can be obtained, if AFIL is inserted in Item 13.
DEST/ Name of destination aerodrome, if ZZZZ is inserted in Item 16.
ALTN/ Name of destination alternate aerodrome(s), if ZZZZ is inserted in Item 16.
RALT/ Name of en-route alternate aerodrome(s).
CODE/ Aircraft address (expressed in the form of an alphanumerical code of six hexadecimal characters) when required by the appropriate ATS authority.
RMK/ Any other plain language remarks when required by the appropriate ATS authority or deemed necessary.
– Emergency and Survival Equipment
CROSS OUT U if UHF on frequency 243.0 MHz is not available.
CROSS OUT V if VHF on frequency 121.5 MHz is not available.
CROSS OUT E if emergency locator transmitter (ELT) is not available.
S/ (SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT)
CROSS OUT all indicators if survival equipment is not carried.
CROSS OUT P if polar survival equipment is not carried
CROSS OUT D if desert survival equipment is not carried.
CROSS OUT M if maritime survival equipment is not carried.
CROSS OUT J if jungle survival equipment is not carried.
CROSS OUT all indicators if life jackets are not carried.
CROSS OUT L if life jackets are not equipped with lights.
CROSS OUT F if life jackets are not equipped with fluorescein.
CROSS OUT U or V or both as in R/ above to indicate radio capability of jackets, if any.
CROSS OUT indicators D and C if no dinghies are carried, or
(NUMBER) INSERT number of dinghies carried; and
(CAPACITY) INSERT total capacity, in persons, of all dinghies carried; and
(COVER) CROSS OUT indicator C if dinghies are not covered; and
(COLOUR) INSERT colour of dinghies if carried.
A/ (AIRCRAFT COLOUR AND MARKINGS) INSERT colour of aircraft and significant markings.
N/ (REMARKS) CROSS OUT indicator N if no remarks, or INDICATE any other survival equipment carried and any other remarks regarding survival equipment.
C/ (PILOT) INSERT name of pilot-in-command.