• Category Archives Navigation
  • Kiến thức » Navigation
  • A Guide to UK Phraseology

    UK Radiotelephony Manual – CAP 413 – July 2012

    Arrow A Guide to UK Phraseology – May 2007

    A supplement to CAA Radiotelephony Guide CAP 413, aimed at commercial and corporate fixed wing pilots in the form of an interactive quick reference guide to UK radio phraseology throughout all stages of a flight – from start-up to approach and landing, including a section that deals with emergency communications.

     

    Continue reading  Post ID 175


  • Guidance on CNS/ATM

    Guidance on CNS/ATM

    The CNS/ATM system is based on available global communications, navigation, and surveillance systems.

    Air Traffic Management (ATM) is a result of these integrated systems working together to provide Air Traffic Control, Airspace Management, and Air Traffic Flow Management. Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) and the ADS data link applications were originally envisaged for use across a digital data communications network for the entire aeronautical community as defined within the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) as the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN).


  • Types of Instrument Approaches

    Types of Instrument Approaches

    With navigation aids and the procedure design process, the various types of procedures that are available will be described in this article. Relatively little emphasis with be placed on conventional navigation aids as the aviation industry is rapidly shifting to a satellite based environment. For this reason, satellite based procedures will be described in detail.

    Arrow RNAV Approaches

    RNAV Approaches are described by a series of waypoints, legs, speed and altitude constraints stored in the onboard navigation database. Safety is improved by providing pilots with better situational awareness than on conventional Non-Precision Approaches (NPA) thereby reducing the risk of controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). Better access can also be provided to runways that are not equipped with precision approach and landing systems. RNAV approaches have been made possible by the widespread availability of high performance RNAV systems on all types of aircraft and in particular by the use of GNSS.

    Arrow RNAV (GPS) Approaches

    Pilots are now benefiting from the proliferation of Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) approaches and lower minimums provided by WAAS-enabled systems. As of July 2011, there were twice as many WAAS approaches as Instrument Landing Systems (ILS) approaches. Currently, there are over 3000 Localizer Performance without Vertical Guidance (LP) and Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) procedures.

    Arrow Continuous Descent Final Approach (CDFA)

    Leveling off at the MDA can be problematic if there are distractions or turbulence. Keeping the airplane at the MDA until the runway is sighted is another issue. But the worst problem may be resisting the urge to descend when you spot the runway too far out. Flying a Continuous Descent Final Approach (CDFA) eliminates the MDA level off, puts the airplane in a position to land when the runway is sighted, and forces you to go around if the runway is not sighted before a normal visual descent point. It is easier to fly than a dive and drive approach


  • Understanding RNP and RNAV Operations

     Understanding RNP and RNAV Operations 

    This document clarifies the current Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Area Navigation (RNAV) requirements in the United States, Europe, and other parts of the world. It also discusses how Universal Avionics’ Flight Management System (FMS) product line supports approved RNP operations. 

    Operators may use this information to assist in making future equipment acquisitions and aircraft modification choices necessary to allow them to fly into RNP airspaces or fly RNAV Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP). Failure to address RNP will, as time progresses, force non-RNP approved aircraft into undesirable lower altitudes (greatly increasing fuel burn), or severely limit the capability of a non-RNP aircraft to fly into a desired airport in instrument weather conditions. 

    Continue reading  Post ID 175


  • FANS – Datalink Communications and ADS

     FANS – Datalink Communications and ADS 

    CNS/ATM is a global system concept, which is based on global navigation, communications and automatic dependent surveillance systems. Although FANS air spaces or routes are usually defined in terms of all the three C, N and S aspects, this brochure mainly addresses the data link Communications and Automatic Dependent Surveillance issues only. The content of this brochure is limited to the FANS A system.


  • ICAO DATA LINK

     Global Operational Data Link Document (ICAO) – 2010 

    This guidance material is intended to maximize operational benefits in data link operations by promoting seamless and inter-operable data link operations throughout the world. This edition limits itself to those data link operations that apply to the use of FANS 1/A and its applications: automatic dependent surveillance — contract (ADS-C), controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC) and the flight management computer waypoint position reporting (FMC WPR). It also addresses the performance of the data link applications taking into consideration the transmission media used by those applications. Future editions are expected to incorporate guidance that applies to the planned expansion of ATN CPDLC in core Europe as well as the use of FANS 1/A in continental Europe. 

    Arrow Global Operational Data Link Document (ICAO) – 2013
    Continue reading  Post ID 175


  • Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN)

     Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) 

    In the early 1980s, the international civil aviation community started to express concern about the limitations of existing facilities and procedures and their inability to cope with increasing air traffic in future years. Consequently, a special committee, called the Special Committee on Future Air Navigation Systems (FANS), was established by the ICAO Council in 1983 to study, identify and assess new concepts and new technology in the field of air navigation, including satellite technology, and to make recommendations thereon for the development of air navigation for international civil aviation over a period of twenty-five years. 

    Continue reading  Post ID 175


  • Tcas II

    Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II Version 7.1 

    Since its introduction in Europe in 2000, TCAS II version 7.0 has been the subject of monitoring. In the course of analysing recorded and reported events, many cases were found in which pilots did not respond correctly to the “Adjust vertical speed, adjust” Resolution Advisories (RAs) – the vertical rate was increased rather than reduced. 

    Additionally, there have also been a number of cases in which TCAS II version 7.0 failed to reverse an RA when two converging aircraft remained within 100 feet. This type scenario would occur when one aircraft is not following the RA or is not TCAS II equipped and follows an ATC instruction or performs an avoidance manoeuvre based on visual acquisition. 

    EUROCONTROL identified these two safety issues and initiated the development of version 7.1 with following solutions: 

    “Level off, Level off” RA 

    To prevent incorrect pilot responses, in version 7.0 the “Adjust vertical speed, adjust” RAs has been replaced by a new “Level off, level off” RA which requires a reduction of vertical rate to 0 ft/min. The level off is to be achieved promptly, not at the next standard flight level (e.g. FL200, FL210, etc.). 

     

    Improved Reversal Logic 

    A feature has been added to the TCAS II version 7.1 logic which monitors RA compliance in coordinated encounters (i.e. when both aircraft are TCAS II equipped). When it is detected that an aircraft is not responding correctly to an RA, a reversal RA will be issued to the aircraft which manoeuvres in accordance with the RA. In single equipage encounters (i.e. when only one aircraft is TCAS II equipped), version 7.1 will recognise the situation and will issue a reversal if the unequipped threat aircraft moves in the same vertical direction as the TCAS II equipped aircraft. 

     

    European Commission has implemented a rule mandating, from 1 December 2015, the carriage of ACAS II (TCAS II) version 7.1 within European Union airspace by all civil aeroplanes with a MTOM exceeding 5700 kg or authorised to carry more than 19 passengers. 

    For more detailed guidance download this FAA booklet on TCAS II version 7.1 as it provides the background for a better understanding of the TCAS II by personnel involved in the implementation and operation of TCAS II. This booklet is an update of the TCAS II Version 7.0 manual. It describes changes to the CAS logic introduced by Version 7.1 and updates the information on requirements for use of TCAS II and operational experience.