• Category Archives ATC
  • Radio Communications

    Introduction:

    • Communications are a critical link in the ATC system
    • The most important thought in communications is understanding
      • It is essential, therefore, that pilots acknowledge each radio communication with ATC by using the appropriate aircraft call sign
    • Brevity is important but not at the price of understanding
      • Controllers must know what you want to do before they can properly carry out their control duties
      • Pilots, must know exactly what the controller wants you to do
      • Since concise phraseology may not always be adequate, use whatever words are necessary to get your message across
    • Talking on the radio however, can be intimidating to even experienced aviators
    • It is therefore important that pilots practice effective communication techniques
    • You must be familiar with ATC Radio Communications
      • Phraseology brings everyone to the same page and allows for an orderly flow of information for instances when you are in congested airspace and there is no time for extra verbiage
    • Calls to air traffic control facilities may be monitored and recorded for records/training
    • Visiting air traffic facilities is recommended, call ahead to ensure they can accommodate
    • Communications are dynamic and can be broken into two environments:
      • Controlled
      • Non-Controlled

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  • Terminal Radar Approach Control

    Introduction:

    • Approach control is responsible for controlling all instrument flight operating within its area of responsibility
    • Approach control may serve one or more airfields, and control is exercised primarily by direct pilot and controller communications
    • Prior to arriving at the destination radio facility, instructions will be received from ARTCC to contact approach control on a specified frequency
    • Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) controls aircraft from the terminal to en-route traffic control to one or more airfields
      • Typically controls aircraft approaching and departing between 5 and 50 miles of the airport
      • Approach control may serve one or more airfields, and control is exercised primarily by direct pilot and controller communications
    • Radar equipment allows a controller to “see” the aircraft even at that distance
    • Sequences and separates IFR and participating VFR aircraft

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  • Air Traffic Control Tower

    Introduction:

    • Airport Traffic Control Towers (ATCTs) are established to provide for a safe, orderly and expeditious flow of traffic
      • When the responsibility has been so delegated, towers also provide for the separation of IFR aircraft in the terminal areas
    • ATCTs control traffic flow on and in the vicinity of an airport
    • They exist when traffic requirements demand and subsequently designated the airspace as either class B, class C, orclass D depending on level of congestion and services provided
    • Additionally, ATCTs also provide for separation of Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) aircraft in the terminal areas
    • Air Traffic Control towers consist of three main components:

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  • Callsigns

    Introduction:

    • An ATC call sign will be used for ATC purposes
    • Call signs should never be abbreviated on an initial contact or at any time when other aircraft call signs have similar numbers/sounds or identical letters/number
      • After initial contact you may abbreviated your call sign with the prefix and the last 3-digits or letters of the identification
    • Civil aircraft pilots should state the aircraft type, model, or manufacturers name, followed by the digits/letters of the registration number
      • The N is dropped
    • Air carriers and commuter air carriers having FAA authorized call signs should identify themselves by starting the complete call sign and the word “Heavy” as appropriate
    • All communications will reference your FULL callsign and not just “two”

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  • Runway

    Runway – Đường băng- Phi đạo được thiết kế/xây dựng rất đặc biệt và luôn luôn theo hướng gió. Trung bình để xây 1 đường băng ngườI ta cần khoảng 10 năm quan sát hướng gió trước khi quyết định xây dựng đường băng theo hướng nào. Vì đường băng được xây dựng theo hướng gió nên việc đặt tên cho đường băng cũng theo hướng luôn.

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  • Flow control

    Ground delay program

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    An air traffic control ground delay program or FAA Flow Control is a traffic flow initiative that is instituted by the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the National Airspace System.

    This program is usually instituted when the following events occur at an airport:

    • inclement weather (i.e., reduced visibility, thunderstorms, snow),
    • a large volume of aircraft going to an airport or en route to another airport in the same line of flight,
    • an aircraft incident, closed runways,
    • a condition that requires increased spacing between aircraft, such as theInstrument Landing System (ILS) approaches vs. visual flight rules (VFR) approaches.

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  • Terminal Radar Service Area

    Introduction:

    • The Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA) was originally established as part of the Terminal Radar Program at selected airports
    • TRSAs are delimited airspace in which radar and ATC services are made available for pilots under IFR or optionally for VFR traffic
    • Terminal Radar Service Areas were never was subject to the rule-making process and consequently, are not contained in 14 CFR Part 71 nor part Part 91 and not considered part of the airspace classification system
    • Part of the Airport Radar Service Area (ARSA) program was to replace the TRSAs
      • The ARSA requirements became relatively stringent and it was subsequently decided that TRSAs would have to meet ARSA criteria before they would be converted
      • Seeing as they do not fit into any airspace classes they will continue to be a non-part 71 airspace area where participating pilots can receive additional radar services which have been redefined as a TRSA service
    • In place to maintain aircraft separation
    • Often times TRSAs are being replaced with Class Bravo or Class C airspace

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  • Published VFR Routes

    Introduction:

    • Developed for transitioning around, under and through complex airspace (such as class Bravo) developed through a number of FAA and industry initiatives [Figure 1]
    • Each route type has a different function and operational requirement
    • VFR Flyways and their associated Flyway Planning Charts were developed from the recommendations of a National Airspace Review Task Group
    • The design of a few of the first Class B airspace areas provided VFR Corridors for the passage of uncontrolled traffic
    • To accommodate VFR traffic through certain Class B airspace, such as Seattle, Phoenix and Los Angeles, Class B Airspace VFR Transition Routes
    • were developed

     

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  • Parachute Jump Aircraft Area

    Introduction:

    • Details contained in 14 CFR Part 105
    • Tabulated in the Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD)
      • Times of operation are local, and MSL altitudes are listed unless otherwise specified
    • Pilots of aircraft engaged in parachute jump operations are reminded that all reported altitudes must be with reference to mean sea level, or flight level, as appropriate, to enable ATC to provide meaningful traffic information

     

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