Maneuvers & Procedures





Takeoff & Landing:

    • Takeoffs and landings are a straight forward concept but their execution under various conditions can make them complex
    • Depending on wind direction, runway alignment, and any number of other variables, you may be required to execute different types of takeoffs to get safely airborne
    • Nose-wheel steering is used to maintain directional control throughout the takeoff roll
    • Factors that effect takeoff roll:
      • Gross Weight:
        • As gross weight increases, the difference between nose-wheel lift-off and takeoff speed decreases
      • Center of Gravity:
        • The farther forward the CG the longer the takeoff roll
        • More authority is required to lift a heavy nose
        • This can be amplified with heavy takeoff weight
        • As CG moves forward, the difference between nose-wheel lift-off and takeoff speed decreases
      • Nose Strut:
        • Nose-wheels do more than for just taxi and shock absorption but also to aid in bouncing the aircraft upward
          • If the nose-wheel is improperly serviced:
            • If the oil level is high, the springboard effect is reduced; but the change in shock absorber effect is minimal (strut compression on landing)
            • If the oil level is low, the reverse is true; springboard effect is essentially normal, but shock absorbing is poor
      • Winds:
        • With a headwind, you have less distance to roll
        • With a tailwind you would have increased speed to develop minimum lift causing stress on tire and increased takeoff distance
      • Power Settings:
        • Applying power to quickly may yaw the aircraft to the left due to torque, most apparent in high-powered engines

Airborne Maneuvers:




Ground Reference Maneuvers:

  • Ground reference maneuvers and their related factors are used in developing a high degree of pilot skill
  • Although most of these maneuvers are not performed as such in normal everyday flying, the elements and principles involved in each are applicable to performance of the customary pilot operations
    • They aid the pilot in analyzing the effect of wind and other forces acting on the airplane and in developing a fine control touch, coordination, and the division of attention necessary for accurate and safe maneuvering of the airplane
  • During ground reference maneuvers it is equally important that basic flying technique previously learned be maintained
  • New maneuvers should embody some advance and include the principles of the preceding one in order that continuity be maintained
  • Each new factor introduced should be merely a step-up of one already learned so that orderly, consistent progress can be made
  • Maneuvering by Reference to Ground Objects:
    • Ground track or ground reference maneuvers are performed at a relatively low altitude while applying wind drift correction as needed to follow a predetermined track or path over the ground
    • Ground reference maneuvers should be flown at an altitude of approximately 600 to 1,000′ AGL depending on the speed and type of airplane to a large extent
    • Consider the following:
      • The speed with relation to the ground should not be so apparent that events happen too rapidly
      • The radius of the turn and the path of the airplane over the ground should be easily noted and changes planned and effected as circumstances require
      • Drift should be easily discernible, but not tax the student too much in making corrections
      • Objects on the ground should appear in their proportion and size
      • The altitude should be low enough to render any gain or loss apparent to the student, but in no case lower than 500′ above the highest obstruction
    • During these maneuvers, both the instructor and the student should be alert for available forced-landing fields
    • The area chosen should be away from communities, livestock, and groups of people to prevent possible annoyance or hazards
  • Due to the altitudes at which these maneuvers are performed, there is little time available to search for a suitable field for landing in the event the need arises
Airplane Flying Handbook, Effects of Wind During Turns


  • Stalls are the separation of airflow over the wings after the wing reaches the Critical Angle of Attack
    • Critical Angle of Attack: the AoA at which a stall will occur regardless of airspeed, flight attitude or weight
  • Stalls can be recognized through a number of methods:
    • Vision: noting the attitude of the airplane, however, not conducive to recognizing approaching stalls
    • Hearing: RPM loss, more airflow noise around cabin
    • Kinesthesia: sensing in directions or speed of motion which is the most important indicator you have
    • Feel: control pressures and pressures exerted
    • Aircraft Warnings: horns, rudder shakers, stick shakers
  • Recovery:
    • Reduce AoA!
      • This is the only way to start the recovery process and may be done by lowering the nose or increasing power, however in most aircraft, lowering the nose is the only logical step you have
    • Increase airspeed (lift)
    • Maintain coordinated use of controls
  • Types of Stalls:


  • Formation flights are efficient and expeditious ways of moving multiple aircraft in an orderly fashion, typically used by the military
  • Formation can be the most challenging and rewarding experience in aviation, but it is not without its dangers


  • Flight maneuvers follow a set of procedures in order to demonstrate some aspect of the aircraft’s performance