• Instrument Approach

    Introduction:

    • Instrument Approach Procedures, or IAPs for short, are established to provide the transition from the en-route to the terminal environment when operating under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR), and/or during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC), to a point where a safe landing can be made
      • Simply stated, they are “road” maps for aircraft entering the terminal area
    • IAPs (standard and special, civil and military) are based on joint civil and military criteria contained in the U.S. Standard for TERPS which takes into account the interrelationship between airports, facilities, and the surrounding environment, terrain, obstacles, noise sensitivity, etc.
    • Appropriate altitudes, courses, headings, distances, and other limitations are specified and, once approved, the procedures are published and distributed by government and commercial cartographers as instrument approach charts
    • Not all IAPs are published in chart form
      • Radar IAPs are established where requirements and facilities exist but they are printed in tabular form in appropriate U.S. Government Flight Information Publications
    • While headings and altitudes will change, approaches generally follow the same rules, which are published on the approach chart (also referred to as the approach plate)

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  • Contact Approach

    Introduction:

    • A contact approach is an approach procedure that may be used by a pilot (with prior authorization from ATC) in lieu of conducting a standard or special IAP to an airport
      • An example where this becomes necessary is if the ground visibility is reported too low for a visual/VFR approach, but the flight visibility is clearly acceptable and the field is in sight

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  • Circling Maneuver

    Introduction:

    • Circling is a maneuver conducted after an instrument approach but not a type of approach itself
    • It is accomplished any time the final approach course is not within 30° of the runway or when landing on a different runway from the approach being flown
    • May be flown for a variety of reasons to include training or operational requirement, for example, if the weather is not VFR and you have the equipment to fly an approach to an inactive runway to break through, and then circle
    • Can be a very dangerous maneuver requiring a lot of situational awareness
      • You will be low, you will be slow, and the weather may be bad
      • You may have little time depending on the weather minimums to orient yourself

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  • Approach Briefing

    Introduction:

    • Airports can have multiple approaches to multiple runways which makes memorizing approach procedures both unrealistic and unsafe
    • Therefore, it is through the approach briefing by which you familiarize yourself and your crew for the approach to be flown
    • Briefed as the pilot sees fit, an approach briefing sets expectations for the pilot and/or crew which keeps the aircrew ahead of the aircraft

     

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  • Standard Terminal Arrival

    Introduction:

    • Standard Terminal Arrivals (STARs) provide a transition from the en-route structure to an outer fix or an instrument approach fix/arrival waypoint in the terminal area to simplify clearance delivery procedures
    • A STAR is an ATC coded IFR arrival route established for application to arriving IFR aircraft, published for pilot use in a graphical [Figure 3] and/or textual [Figure 4] form
      • RNAV STAR/FMSP procedures for arrivals serve the same purpose but are only used by aircraft equipped with FMS or GPS
    • They can be found inside the instrument approach plates, and online at http://aeronav.faa.gov/index.asp?xml=aeronav/applications/d_tpp by searching the terminal procedures for the airport you are operating out of and listed alphabetically

     

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  • Standard Instrument Departure Procedures

    Introduction:

    • Standard Instrument Departure Procedures (SIDs) are preplanned air traffic control (ATC) instrument flight rule (IFR) procedures which provide obstruction clearance from the terminal area to the appropriate en route structure
      • These procedures ensure a safe and expeditious climb out from an airport and to provide separation between aircraft to ensure safe transition
    • Issued primarily to provide obstruction clearance but secondary to reduce controller workload and support noise abatement programs
    • ATC clearance must be received prior to flying a SID
    • Pilots operating under 14 CFR Part 91 are strongly encouraged to file and fly a DP at night, during marginal Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) and Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC), when one is available
    • Booklets are available from AeroNav

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